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1860 Slave Schedule: Creek Nation
Cherokee Nation 1860 Slave Schedule
Heritage Gardens (Smithsonian)
IndiVisible: African-Native American Lives in the Americas


Abel, Annie Heloise. The American Indian as Slaveholder and Secessionist. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1992. 394p. Bibliography. Illustrations. Index. Notes. /GC 973.74 Aa1abea/

Ball, Bonnie. The Melungeons: Notes on the Origin of a Race. Johnson City, TN: Overmountain Press, 1992. 114p. Bibliography. Appendices. Illustrations. /GC 975 B212M/

Brooks, James F., ed. Confounding the Color Line: The Indian-Black Experience in North America. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2002. 396p. Index. Notes. /GC 973 C7605/

Dinnerstein, Leonard, Roger L. Nichols and David M. Reimers. Natives and Strangers: Blacks, Indians, and Immigrants in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. 362p. Bibliography. Index. Photographs. /GC 973 D61n/

Faggins, Barbara A. Africans and Indians: An Afrocentric Analysis of Contacts Between Africans and Indians in Colonial Virginia. New York: Routledge, 2001. 94p. Index. Bibliography. Illustrations. Appendices. /GC 975.5 F134af/

Forbes, Jack D. Africans and Native Americans: The Language of Race and the Evolution of Red-Black Peoples. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1993. 344p. Bibliography. Index. Notes. /GC 970.1 F74af/

Guinn, Jeff. Our Land Before We Die: The Proud Story of the Seminole Negro. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 2002. 378p. Bibliography. Index. Photographs. /Gc 975.9 G948ou/

Hale, Carretha Dulin. From Slavery to Statehood: A Family History in the Creek Nation. Indianapolis, IN: C. D. Hale, 2015. 96p. Appendix. Bibliography. Illustrations. Index. Photographs. /GC 929.2 C83675ha/

Halliburton, R., Jr. Red Over Black: Black Slavery Among the Cherokee Indians. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1977. 218p. Appendices. Index. Bibliography. /GC 975 H15r/

Hayes, Katherine Howlett. Slavery Before Race: Europeans, Africans, and Indians at Long Island's Sylvester Manor Plantation, 1651-1884. New York: New York University Press, 2013. 220p. Bibliography. Illustrations. Index. Notes. /GC 974.7 H32sl/

Heard, J. Norman. The Black Frontiersmen: Adventures of Negroes Among American Indians, 1528-1918. New York: The John Day Company, 1969. 128p. Bibliography. Index. /GC 929.11 H35b/

Katz, William Loren. Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage. New York: Aladdin Paperbacks, 1997. 198p. Bibliography. Index. Photographs. /GC 973 K159b/

Krauthamer, Barbara. Black Slaves, Indian Masters: Slavery, Emancipation, and Citizenship in the Native American South. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 2013. 211p. Bibliography. Illustrations. Index. Notes. Photographs. /GC 973.068 K86b/

Littlefield, Daniel F., Jr. Africans and Creeks: From the Colonial Period to the Civil War. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1979. 286p. Bibliography. Index. Maps. /GC 970.1 L73a/

Littlefield, Daniel F., Jr. Africans and Seminoles: From Removal to Emancipation. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1977. 278p. Bibliography. Index. Lists. /GC 970.1 L73af/

Littlefield, Daniel F., Jr. The Cherokee Freedmen: From Emancipation to American Citizenship. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1978. Bibliography. Index. /GC 970.1 L73c/

Littlefield, Daniel F., Jr. The Chickasaw Freedmen: A People Without a Country. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1980. 248p. Bibliography. Index. Photographs. /GC 976.6 L727c/

Mandell, Daniel R. Tribe, Race, History: Native Americans in Southern New England, 1780-1880. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008. 321p. Index. Bibliography. Notes. Illustrations. Photographs. /GC 970.4 M312tr/

Menchaca, Martha. Recovering History, Constructing Race: The Indian, Black, and White Roots of Mexican Americans. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2001. 375p. Bibliography. Index. Notes. Photographs. /GC 973 M521re/

Miles, Tiya Alicia. "Bone of My Bone:" Stories of a Black-Cherokee Family, 1790-1866. St. Paul, MN: T. A. Miles, 2000. 250p. Bibliography. Notes. /GC 970.3 C42mil/

Millett, Nathaniel. The Maroons of Prospect Bluff and Their Quest for Freedom in the Atlantic World. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2013. 346p. Bibliography. Illustrations. Index. Notes. /GC 975.901 F85mn/

Minges, Patrick N. Slavery in the Cherokee Nation: The Keetoowah Society and the Defining of a People, 1855-1867. New York: Routledge, 2003. 302p. Bibliography. Illustrations. Index. Notes. Photographs. Studies in African American History and Culture Series. /GC 970.3 C42mo/

Minges, Patrick. Black Indian Slave Narratives. Winston-Salem, NC: John F. Blair, Publisher, 2004. 200p. /GC 973 B5602/

Mock, Shirley Boteler. Dreaming with the Ancestors: Black Seminole Women in Texas and Mexico. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2010. 383p. Index. Bibliography. Notes. Photographs. /GC 976.4 M717d/

Naylor-Ojurongbe, Celia E. "More at Home With the Indians:" African-American Slaves and Freedpeople in the Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory, 1838-1907. Durham, NC: C. E. Naylor-Ojurongbe, 2001. 392p. Appendices. Bibliography. Illustrations. Notes. /GC 976.6 N232mo/

O'Donnell, James Howlett. Southeastern Frontiers: Europeans, Africans, and American Indians, 1513-1840: A Critical Bibliography. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1982. 119p. /GC 970.4 OD52so/

Perdue, Theda. Slavery and the Evolution of the Cherokee Society, 1540-1866. Athens, GA: T. Perdue, 1976. 260p. Bibliography. Notes. /GC 970.3 C42pea/

Perdue, Theda. Slavery and the Evolution of the Cherokee Society, 1540-1866. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 1979. 207p. Bibliography. Illustrations. Index. Notes. /GC 970.3 C42pe/

Piecuch, Jim. Three Peoples, One King: Loyalists, Indians, and Slaves in the Revolutionary South, 1775-1782. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2008. 439p. Index. Bibliography. Notes. Illustrations. /GC 973.34 Aa1pie//

Porter, Kenneth Wiggins. The Black Seminoles: History of a Freedom-Seeking People. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1996. 284p. Bibliography. Index. /GC 970.3 Se52p/

Reese, Linda Williams. Trail Sisters: Freedwomen in Indian Territory, 1850-1890. Lubbock, TX: Texas Tech University Press, 2013. 186p. Bibliography. Illustrations. Index. Notes. Photographs. /GC 973.068 R259ts/

Roethler, Michael. Negro Slavery Among the Cherokee Indians, 1540-1866. New York: M. Roethler, 1964. 265p. Appendix. Bibliography. Illustrations. Notes. /GC 970.3 C42roe/

Saunt, Claudio. Black, White, and Indian: Race and the Unmaking of an American Family. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2005. 300p. Index. Notes. Photographs. /GC 929.2 G7965s/

Silver, Timothy. A New Face on the Countryside: Indians, Colonists, and Slaves in South Atlantic Forests, 1500-1800. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990. 204p. Illustrations. Index. Notes. /GC 975 Si92n/

Smith, Gloria L. Beginning Black(Indian Genealogy(The Seminoles. Tucson, AZ: G. L. Smith, 1994. 135p. Bibliography. Lists. /GC 929.11 Sm57b/

Snyder, Christina. Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010. 329p. Index. Notes. Illustrations. /GC 970.4 Sn92sl/

South Carolina. State Human Affairs Commission. Bicentennial Project Editorial Board. South Carolina's Blacks and Native Americans, 1776-1976. Columbia, SC: State Human Affairs Commission, 1976. 254p. Index. Appendices. Notes. Photographs. /GC 975.7 So87so/

Stavinoga, Pamela. People of Difference, Annal for Posterity: A Genealogical Study of the Heiskell-Bryant Family. Baltimore, MD: Gateway Press, Inc., 2004. 151p. Bibliography. Charts. Notes. Photographs. /GC 929.2 H36492s/

Walton-Raji, Angela Y. Black Indian Genealogy Research. Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, Inc., 1993. 167p. Bibliography. Index. /GC 929

Walton-Raji, Angela Y. Black Indian Genealogy Research: African-American Ancestors Among the Five Civilized Tribes. Westminster, MD: Heritage Books, Inc., 2007. 248p. Appendices. Bibliography. Index. /GC 929 W178bi/

Washington, Preston L. No Favor: A Compilation of Selected Newspaper Articles Denoting the Life and Times of African-Americans Living Among and Near the Five Civilized Tribes. Kansas City, MO: P. L. Washington, 2009. 285p. Indices. /GC 973.068 W27n/

Weslager, C.A. The Siconese Indians of Lewes, Delaware: A Historical Account of a "Great" Bayside Lenape Tribe. Lewes, DE: Lewes Historical Society, 1991. 32p. Notes. Illustrations. /GC 975.102 L58WE/

Yarbrough, Fay A. "Those Disgraceful and Unnatural Matches": Interracial Sex and Cherokee Society in the Nineteenth Century. Atlanta, GA: F. A. Yarbrough, 2003. 363p. Appendix. Bibliography. Illustrations. Notes. /GC 970.3 C42ya/

Zellar, Gary. African Creeks: Estelvste and the Creek Nation. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2007. 343p. Bibliography. Illustrations. Index. Notes. Photographs. Race and Culture in the American West Series. /GC 970.3 C857ze/

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